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High Prevalence of Non-Typhoid Salmonella Bacteraemia Among Febrile HIV Adult Patients Admitted at a Tertiary Hospital, North-Western Tanzania.

Meremo, A., Mshana, S. E., Kidenya, B. R., Kabangila, R., Peck, R. and Kataraihya, J. B. (2012) High Prevalence of Non-Typhoid Salmonella Bacteraemia Among Febrile HIV Adult Patients Admitted at a Tertiary Hospital, North-Western Tanzania. International archives of medicine, 5 (1). p. 28. ISSN 1755-7682

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Abstract

Bacterial blood stream infections constitute a significant public-health problem and it is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients. Little is known in developing countries regarding salmonella bacteraemia among HIV patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial pathogens causing blood stream infection among febrile adults attending in a tertiary hospital North-Western, Tanzania. A prospective cross-sectional study involving 346 consecutive, febrile adult patients admitted at Bugando Medical Centre was conducted. Demographic and other data were collected using standardized questionnaires. Blood culture was done followed by susceptibility testing using disc diffusion method. HIV testing was also performed as per Tanzania national algorithm and total white blood cell counts and CD4+ counts determined. Of 346 febrile adult patients 33 (9.5%) had blood stream infections. The common isolates were Salmonella spp 13(39.4%), Escherichia coli 8 (24.2%), Streptococcus pneumonia 5(15.2%), Staphylococcus aureus 4(12.1%), Citrobacter spp 1(3%), Streptococcus pyogenes 1(3%) and Klebsiella pneumonia 1(3%). A total of 156 (45.1%) patients were HIV infected; of whom 12/156 (7.6%) were infected by non-typhoid Salmonella spp compared to 1/190 (0.5%) of non-HIV infected patients (RRR 11.2, p=0.029) infected with Salmonella typhi. HIV infected patients with bacteraemia had significantly lower CD4+ count than those without bacteraemia (median 28 vs. 88 cells/ml, p=0.01). Patients with salmonella bacteraemia had significantly lower median of WBC than those with non-salmonella as well as those without bacteraemia (median, 3.6 vs. 17.5 vs. 9.8x109, p=0.0001). All Salmonella spp were sensitive to ceftriaxone and imipenem, while being 84%, 69.2%, 38% and 8% resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, sulphamethaxazole/trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin respectively. Predictors of mortality were HIV infection (OR 2.3, p=0.006), Glasgow coma score of less than 15 (OR 3.4, p=0.0001) and night sweats (OR 2.4, p=0.014). Non-typhoid Salmonella spp that are highly resistant to common antibiotics are predominant cause of bacterial blood stream infection among HIV patients attending Bugando Medical Centre. Continuous surveillance and intervention strategies should be put in place to monitor and manage cases of bloodstream infections in HIV-positive patients in Mwanza, Tanzania.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Typhoid, HIV/AIDS, HIV infection, Salmonella Bacteraemia, Hospital, Blood infections, Public health, Mobirdity, Mortality, Pathogens, Febrile adults, Tanzania
Subjects: HIV > Surveillance
Divisions: Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences (CUHAS)
Depositing User: Mr Joseph Madata
Date Deposited: 14 Aug 2013 08:11
Last Modified: 14 Aug 2013 08:11
URI: http://ihi.eprints.org/id/eprint/1437

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