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Breast Milk from Tanzanian Women has Divergent Effects on Cell-Free and Cell-Associated HIV-1 Infection in Vitro.

Lyimo, M. A., Mosi, M. N., Housman, M. L., Zain-Ul-Abideen, M., Lee, F. V., Howell, A. L. and Connor, R. I. (2012) Breast Milk from Tanzanian Women has Divergent Effects on Cell-Free and Cell-Associated HIV-1 Infection in Vitro. PloS one, 7 (8). e43815. ISSN 1932-6203

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Transmission of HIV-1 during breastfeeding is a significant source of new pediatric infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Breast milk from HIV-positive mothers contains both cell-free and cell-associated virus; however, the impact of breast milk on HIV-1 infectivity remains poorly understood. In the present study, breast milk was collected from HIV-positive and HIV-negative Tanzanian women attending antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam. Milk was analyzed for activity in vitro against both cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1. Potent inhibition of cell-free R5 and X4 HIV-1 occurred in the presence of milk from all donors regardless of HIV-1 serostatus. Inhibition of cell-free HIV-1 infection positively correlated with milk levels of sialyl-Lewis(X) from HIV-positive donors. In contrast, milk from 8 of 16 subjects enhanced infection with cell-associated HIV-1 regardless of donor serostatus. Milk from two of these subjects contained high levels of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1 and IP-10, and enhanced cell-associated HIV-1 infection at dilutions as high as 1∶500. These findings indicate that breast milk contains innate factors with divergent activity against cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 in vitro. Enhancement of cell-associated HIV-1 infection by breast milk may be associated with inflammatory conditions in the mother and may contribute to infant infection during breastfeeding.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Breast Milk, HIV-Positive Mothers, Cell-Free and Cell-Associated HIV- 1 Virus, HIV-1 Transmission, Tanzania
Subjects: HIV > PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child transmission)
Divisions: Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS)
Depositing User: Mr Joseph Madata
Date Deposited: 06 Jun 2013 09:53
Last Modified: 06 Jun 2013 09:53

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