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Infection of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, with two species of entomopathogenic fungi: effects of concentration, co-formulation, exposure time and persistence.

Mnyone, L. L., Kirby, M. J., Lwetoijera, D. W., Mpingwa, M. W., Knols, B. G. J., Takken, W. and Russell, T. L. (2009) Infection of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, with two species of entomopathogenic fungi: effects of concentration, co-formulation, exposure time and persistence. Malaria journal, 8 (309). pp. 1-12. ISSN 1475-2875

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates have been shown to infect and reduce the survival of mosquito vectors.

METHODS

Here four different bioassays were conducted to study the effect of conidia concentration, co-formulation, exposure time and persistence of the isolates M. anisopliae ICIPE-30 and B. bassiana I93-925 on infection and survival rates of female Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Test concentrations and exposure times ranged between 1 x 10(7) - 4 x 10(10) conidia m(-2) and 15 min - 6 h. In co-formulations, 2 x 10(10) conidia m(-2) of both fungus isolates were mixed at ratios of 4:1, 2:1, 1:1,1:0, 0:1, 1:2 and 1:4. To determine persistence, mosquitoes were exposed to surfaces treated 1, 14 or 28 d previously, with conidia concentrations of 2 x 10(9), 2 x 10(10) or 4 x 10(10).

RESULTS

Mosquito survival varied with conidia concentration; 2 x 10(10) conidia m(-2) was the concentration above which no further reductions in survival were detectable for both isolates of fungus. The survival of mosquitoes exposed to single and co-formulated treatments was similar and no synergistic or additive effects were observed. Mosquitoes were infected within 30 min and longer exposure times did not result in a more rapid killing effect. Fifteen min exposure still achieved considerable mortality rates (100% mortality by 14 d) of mosquitoes, but at lower speed than with 30 min exposure (100% mortality by 9 d). Conidia remained infective up to 28 d post-application but higher concentrations did not increase persistence.

CONCLUSION

Both fungus isolates are effective and persistent at low concentrations and short exposure times.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: malaria infection, mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, fungi, malaria control
Subjects: Malaria > Vector control
Malaria > Diagnosis & treatment
Divisions: Ifakara Health Institute > Biomedical
Depositing User: Mr Joseph Madata
Date Deposited: 30 Jul 2012 07:39
Last Modified: 16 Aug 2012 15:57
URI: http://ihi.eprints.org/id/eprint/199

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