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Importance of Ethnicity, CYP2B6 and ABCB1 Genotype for Efavirenz Pharmacokinetics and Treatment Outcomes: A Parallel-group Prospective Cohort Study in two sub-Saharan Africa Populations.

Ngaimisi, E., Habtewold, A., Minzi, O., Makonnen, E., Mugusi, S., Amogne, W., Yimer, G., Riedel, K.-D., Janabi, M., Aderaye, G., Mugusi, F., Bertilsson, L., Aklillu, E. and Burhenne, J. (2013) Importance of Ethnicity, CYP2B6 and ABCB1 Genotype for Efavirenz Pharmacokinetics and Treatment Outcomes: A Parallel-group Prospective Cohort Study in two sub-Saharan Africa Populations. PloS one, 8 (7). e67946. ISSN 1932-6203

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Abstract

We evaluated the importance of ethnicity and pharmacogenetic variations in determining efavirenz pharmacokinetics, auto-induction and immunological outcomes in two African populations. ART naïve HIV patients from Ethiopia (n = 285) and Tanzania (n = 209) were prospectively enrolled in parallel to start efavirenz based HAART. CD4+ cell counts were determined at baseline, 12, 24 and 48 weeks. Plasma and intracellular efavirenz and 8-hydroxyefvairenz concentrations were determined at week 4 and 16. Genotyping for common functional CYP2B6, CYP3A5, ABCB1, UGT2B7 and SLCO1B1 variant alleles were done. Patient country, CYP2B6*6 and ABCB1 c.4036A>G (rs3842A>G) genotype were significant predictors of plasma and intracellular efavirenz concentration. CYP2B6*6 and ABCB1 c.4036A>G (rs3842) genotype were significantly associated with higher plasma efavirenz concentration and their allele frequencies were significantly higher in Tanzanians than Ethiopians. Tanzanians displayed significantly higher efavirenz plasma concentration at week 4 (p<0.0002) and week 16 (p = 0.006) compared to Ethiopians. Efavirenz plasma concentrations remained significantly higher in Tanzanians even after controlling for the effect of CYP2B6*6 and ABCB1 c.4036A>G genotype. Within country analyses indicated a significant decrease in the mean plasma efavirenz concentration by week 16 compared to week 4 in Tanzanians (p = 0.006), whereas no significant differences in plasma concentration over time was observed in Ethiopians (p = 0.84). Intracellular efavirenz concentration and patient country were significant predictors of CD4 gain during HAART. We report substantial differences in efavirenz pharmacokinetics, extent of auto-induction and immunologic recovery between Ethiopian and Tanzanian HIV patients, partly but not solely, due to pharmacogenetic variations. The observed inter-ethnic variations in efavirenz plasma exposure may possibly result in varying clinical treatment outcome or adverse event profiles between populations.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Ethnicity, pharmacogenetic, Efavirenz pharmacokinetics, HIV/AIDS,ART, HAART, CD4+, -hydroxyefvairenz
Subjects: HIV > Treatment
Divisions: Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS)
Depositing User: Mr Joseph Madata
Date Deposited: 13 Nov 2013 05:28
Last Modified: 13 Nov 2013 05:28
URI: http://ihi.eprints.org/id/eprint/2267

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