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Is the Risk of HIV Acquisition Increased during and Immediately after Pregnancy? A Secondary Analysis of Pooled HIV Community-Based Studies from the ALPHA Network.

Marston, M., Newell, M. L., Crampin, A., Lutalo, T., Musoke, R., Gregson, S., Nyamukapa, C., Nakiyingi-Miiro, J., Urassa, M., Isingo, R. and Zaba, B. (2013) Is the Risk of HIV Acquisition Increased during and Immediately after Pregnancy? A Secondary Analysis of Pooled HIV Community-Based Studies from the ALPHA Network. PloS one, 8 (12). e82219. ISSN 1932-6203

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Abstract

Previous studies of HIV acquisition in pregnancy have been in specific population groups, such as sero-discordant couples which have shown an increased risk of HIV acquisition during pregnancy and studies of sexually active women where the results have been ambiguous. However these studies are unable to tell us what the overall impact of pregnancy is on HIV acquisition in the general population. Data from six community-based HIV cohorts were pooled to give 2,628 sero-conversions and a total of 178,000 person years of observation. Multiple imputation was used to allow for the uncertainty of exact sero-conversion date in surveillance intervals greater than the length of a pregnancy. Results were combined using Rubin's rules to give appropriate error bounds. The analysis was stratified into two periods: pre- and post- widespread availability of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services. This allows us to assess whether there is reporting bias relating to a person's knowledge of their own HIV status which would become more widespread in the latter time period. Results suggest that women while pregnant have a lower risk of acquiring HIV infection over all periods (HRR 0.79, 95%CI 0.70-0.89) than women who were not pregnant. There is no evidence for a difference in the rate of HIV acquisition between postpartum and non-pregnant women (HRR 0.92 95%CI 0.84-1.03). Although there may be immunological reasons for increased risk of HIV acquisition during pregnancy, at a population level this study indicates a lower risk of HIV acquisition for pregnant women. Pregnant women may be more likely to be concordant with their current sexual partner than non-pregnant women, i.e. either already HIV positive prior to the pregnancy or if negative at the time of becoming pregnant more likely to have a negative partner.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: HIV, Pregnancy, Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission(PMCT), HIV Risk, Sexual behavior, Women
Subjects: HIV > PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child transmission)
Divisions: National Institute for Medical Research
Depositing User: Mr Joseph Madata
Date Deposited: 04 Feb 2014 07:09
Last Modified: 04 Feb 2014 07:09
URI: http://ihi.eprints.org/id/eprint/2432

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