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Prevalence of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, other Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Health-Related Perceptions, Reflections, Experiences and Practices among Men having Sex with Men in Dar es Salaam

Leshabari, M.T., Mmbaga, E. J., Mpembeni, R. and Moen, K. (2013) Prevalence of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, other Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Health-Related Perceptions, Reflections, Experiences and Practices among Men having Sex with Men in Dar es Salaam. Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences.

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Abstract

Men who have sex with Men (MSM) have been reported to be at higher risk of transmission and acquisition of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Studies on HIV prevalence among MSM conducted in various African countries have revealed prevalence rates which are higher (2-20 times) than that of the general population. HIV-related research and programming in many parts of Africa including Tanzania have often failed to address anal sex in general and male-to-male penile-anal sex in particular. To determine the prevalence of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections and health related perceptions, reflections, experiences and practices among same sex practicing men in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania A respondent driven sampling method was employed for the recruitment of the study participants aged 18 and above. Participants were recruited from all the three municipality of Dar es Salaam. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods were used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, HIV/STI knowledge and behavioural characteristics. Blood samples were collected for HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2), Syphilis and Hepatitis B testing. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.3.2 and analyzed using RDSAT software and STATA statistical software A total of 753 participants with median age of 25 years were interviewed. The median age at first anal sex was 18 years and majority (83.0%) were single while 10% reported being married/cohabiting with a woman. Of those interviewed, 31.8% assumed a receptive, 60.8% an insertive and 7.4% both an insertive and receptive position during last anal sexual contact. Condoms and lubricant use was fairly low in this population (48% and 32% had used condoms and a lubricant, respectively, during the last sexual encounter). Only about a quarter had used condoms in their last sexual encounter with a woman. The prevalence of HIV, HSV2, Syphilis and Hepatitis B infections were 22.2%, 40.3%, 1.0% and 4.9%, respectively. HIV infection was associated with HSV2 infection (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 4.10, 95%CI:2.58, 6.50); age (18-24) as compared to 25 years and above (AOR, 1.62, 95%CI: 1.06, 2.49); being in a sexual relationship with a woman [having a female sexual partner (AOR, 8.01, 95%CI: 4.11, 15.59), married/cohabiting with a woman (AOR,5.49, 95%CI: 1.52, 19.61), last sex with a woman (AOR, 4.34, 95%CI: 2.62, 7.19) and those assumed a receptive position (AOR, 8.66, 95%CI:5.13, 14.64) and both a receptive and insertive position (AOR, 3.44, 95%CI:1.35, 8.74) during last anal sex. The population of MSM in Dar es Salaam was estimated to range from 6,409 to 13,513 MSM Dar es Salaam has a total of 13513 MSM, majority of them were single, but about 6% were married and had children. Pleasure was the most common reason for first sexual experience even though about 10% were initially raped. Heterosexual relationships were found to be fairly high as 84% of the study participants reported to have ever had sex with women. A large majority (61%) were assumed a penetrating position, and about a third an inserted during penile-anal intecourse. Condom use was generally low as only 48% reported condom use during the last anal sex encounter. MSM have four times higher prevalence of HIV infection as compared to the overall male population in Dar es Salaam. Two fifths (40%) of them were infected with HSV2. Biological, bisexuality and other behavioral risk factors play an important part in HIV transmission and acquisition. Intensified HIV prevention programs that include MSM are urgently needed to realize the zero new infection goal.

Item Type: Other
Keywords: HIV, STI, MSM, Condoms, Lubricant, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Subjects: ?? HIV1 ??
Divisions: ?? muhas ??
Depositing User: Users 61 not found.
Date Deposited: 10 Feb 2014 07:10
Last Modified: 10 Feb 2014 07:10
URI: http://ihi.eprints.org/id/eprint/2455

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