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Rapid Urban Malaria Appraisal (RUMA) II: epidemiology of urban malaria in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania).

Wang, S.-J., Lengeler, C., Mtasiwa, D., Mshana, T., Manane, L., Maro, G. and Tanner, M. (2006) Rapid Urban Malaria Appraisal (RUMA) II: epidemiology of urban malaria in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Malaria journal, 5 (28). pp. 1-10. ISSN 1475-2875 (In Press)

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The thinking behind malaria research and control strategies stems largely from experience gained in rural areas and needs to be adapted to the urban environment.


A rapid assessment of urban malaria was conducted in Dar es Salaam in June-August, 2003 using a standard Rapid Urban Malaria Appraisal (RUMA) methodology. This study was part of a multi-site study in sub-Saharan Africa supported by the Roll Back Malaria Partnership.


Overall, around one million cases of malaria are reported every year by health facilities. However, school surveys in Dar es Salaam during a dry spell in 2003 showed that the prevalence of malaria parasites was low: 0.8%, 1.4%, 2.7% and 3.7% in the centre, intermediate, periphery and surrounding rural areas, respectively. Health facilities surveys showed that only 37/717 (5.2%) of presenting fever cases and 22/781 (2.8%) of non-fever cases were positive by blood slide. As a result, malaria-attributable fractions for fever episodes were low in all age groups and there was an important over-reporting of malaria cases. Increased malarial infection rates were seen in persons who travelled to rural areas within the past three months. A remarkably high coverage of insecticide-treated nets and a corresponding reduction in malarial infection risk were found.


The number of clinical malaria cases was much lower than routine reporting suggested. Improved malaria diagnosis and re-defined clinical guidelines are urgently required to avoid over-treatment with antimalarials.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Malaria Appraisal, Epidemiology, treated nets, malaria risk
Subjects: Malaria > Surveillance, monitoring, evaluation
Divisions: Ifakara Health Institute > Biomedical
Depositing User: Mr Joseph Madata
Date Deposited: 27 Jul 2012 08:16
Last Modified: 16 Aug 2012 15:57

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