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Molecular and functional analysis identifies ALK-1 as the predominant cause of pulmonary hypertension related to hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

Harrison, R. E., Flanagan, J. A., Sankelo, M., Abdalla, S. A., Rowell, J., Machado, R. D., Elliott, C. G., Robbins, I. M., Olschewski, H., McLaughlin, V., Gruenig, E., Kermeen, F., Halme, M., Räisänen-Sokolowski, A., Laitinen, T., Morrell, N. W. and Trembath, R. C. (2003) Molecular and functional analysis identifies ALK-1 as the predominant cause of pulmonary hypertension related to hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Journal of medical genetics, 40 (12). pp. 865-871. ISSN 1468-6244

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Mutations of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) receptor components ENDOGLIN and ALK-1 cause the autosomal dominant vascular disorder hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Heterozygous mutations of the type II receptor BMPR2 underlie familial primary pulmonary hypertension.

OBJECTIVE

To investigate kindreds presenting with both pulmonary hypertension and HHT.

METHODS

Probands and families were identified by specialist pulmonary hypertension centres in five countries. DNA sequence analysis of ALK-1, ENDOGLIN, and BMPR2 was undertaken. Cellular localisation was investigated by heterologous overexpression of mutant constructs in both BAEC and HeLa cells. The impact of a novel sequence variant was assessed through comparative analysis and computer modelling.

RESULTS

Molecular analysis of 11 probands identified eight missense mutations of ALK-1, one of which was observed in two families. Mutations were located within exons 5 to 10 of the ALK-1 gene. The majority of ALK-1 mutant constructs appeared to be retained within the cell cytoplasm, in the endoplasmic reticulum. A novel GS domain mutation, when overexpressed, reached the cell surface but is predicted to disrupt conformational changes owing to loss of a critical hydrogen bond. Two novel missense mutations were identified in ENDOGLIN.

CONCLUSIONS

The association of pulmonary arterial hypertension and HHT identifies an important disease complication and appears most common among subjects with defects in ALK-1 receptor signalling. Future studies should focus on detailed molecular analysis of the common cellular pathways disrupted by mutations of ALK-1 and BMPR2 that cause inherited pulmonary vascular disease.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Molecular biology, ALK-1, pulmonary hypertension, haemorrhagic telangiectasia.
Subjects: Biomedical Science > Molecular biology
Divisions: Ifakara Health Institute > Biomedical
Depositing User: Mr Joseph Madata
Date Deposited: 08 Sep 2012 21:18
Last Modified: 08 Sep 2012 21:18
URI: http://ihi.eprints.org/id/eprint/272

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