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Development and Validation of Climate and Ecosystem-based Early Malaria Epidemic Prediction Models in East Africa.

Githeko, A. K., Ogallo, L., Lemnge, M., Okia, M. and Ototo, E. N. (2014) Development and Validation of Climate and Ecosystem-based Early Malaria Epidemic Prediction Models in East Africa. Malaria journal, 13 (1). p. 329. ISSN 1475-2875

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Malaria epidemics remain a serious threat to human populations living in the highlands of East Africa where transmission is unstable and climate sensitive. An existing early malaria epidemic prediction model required further development, validations and automation before its wide use and application in the region. The model has a lead-time of two to four months between the detection of the epidemic signal and the evolution of the epidemic. The validated models would be of great use in the early detection and prevention of malaria epidemics. Confirmed inpatient malaria data were collected from eight sites in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda for the period 1995-2009. Temperature and rainfall data for the period 1960-2009 were collected from meteorological stations closest to the source of the malaria data. Process-based models were constructed for computing the risk of an epidemic in two general highland ecosystems using temperature and rainfall data. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive power were used to validate the models RESULTS: Depending on the availability and quality of the malaria and meteorological data, the models indicated good functionality at all sites. Only two sites in Kenya had data that met the criteria for the full validation of the models. The additive model was found most suited for the poorly drained U-shaped valley ecosystems while the multiplicative model was most suited for the well-drained V-shaped valley ecosystem. The +18[degree sign]C model was adaptable to any of the ecosystems and was designed for conditions where climatology data were not available. The additive model scored 100% for sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive power. The multiplicative model had a sensitivity of 75% specificity of 99% and a positive predictive power of 86%. The additive and multiplicative models were validated and were shown to be robust and with high climate-based, early epidemic predictive power. They are designed for use in the common, well- and poorly drained valley ecosystems in the highlands of East Africa.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Malaria, Epidemic prediction, Models, Africa
Subjects: Malaria > Surveillance, monitoring, evaluation
Divisions: National Institute for Medical Research
Depositing User: Mr Joseph Madata
Date Deposited: 27 Aug 2014 07:51
Last Modified: 27 Aug 2014 07:51

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