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Impact of Agriculture on the Selection of Insecticide Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae : A Multigenerational Study in Controlled Conditions.

Nkya, T., Poupardin, R., Laporte, F., Akhouayri, I., Mosha, F., Magesa, S., Kisinza, W. and David, J.-P. (2014) Impact of Agriculture on the Selection of Insecticide Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae : A Multigenerational Study in Controlled Conditions. Parasites & vectors, 7 (1). p. 480. ISSN 1756-3305

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Resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides is mainly attributed to their adaptation to vector control interventions. Although pesticides used in agriculture have been frequently mentioned as an additional force driving the selection of resistance, only a few studies were dedicated to validate this hypothesis and characterise the underlying mechanisms. While insecticide resistance is rising dramatically in Africa, deciphering how agriculture affects resistance is crucial for improving resistance management strategies. In this context, the multigenerational effect of agricultural pollutants on the selection of insecticide resistance was examined in Anopheles gambiae. An urban Tanzanian An. gambiae population displaying a low resistance level was used as a parental strain for a selection experiment across 20 generations. At each generation larvae were selected with a mixture containing pesticides and herbicides classically used in agriculture in Africa. The resistance levels of adults to deltamethrin, DDT and bendiocarb were compared between the selected and non-selected strains across the selection process together with the frequency of kdr mutations. A microarray approach was used for pinpointing transcription level variations selected by the agricultural pesticide mixture at the adult stage. A gradual increase of adult resistance to all insecticides was observed across the selection process. The frequency of the L1014S kdr mutation rose from 1.6% to 12.5% after 20 generations of selection. Microarray analysis identified 90 transcripts over-transcribed in the selected strain as compared to the parental and the non-selected strains. Genes encoding cuticle proteins, detoxification enzymes, proteins linked to neurotransmitter activity and transcription regulators were mainly affected. RT-qPCR transcription profiling of candidate genes across multiple generations supported their link with insecticide resistance. This study confirms the potency of agriculture in selecting for insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. We demonstrated that the recurrent exposure of larvae to agricultural pollutants can select for resistance mechanisms to vector control insecticides at the adult stage. Our data suggest that in addition to selected target-site resistance mutations, agricultural pollutants may also favor cuticle, metabolic and synaptic transmission-based resistance mechanisms. These results emphasize the need for integrated resistance management strategies taking into account agriculture activities.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Agriculture, Pesticide, Pollutant, Mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, Malaria, Insecticide resistance, Detoxification enzymes, Cuticle, Kdr mutation
Subjects: Malaria > Vector control
Divisions: National Institute for Medical Research
Depositing User: Mr Joseph Madata
Date Deposited: 21 Nov 2014 07:57
Last Modified: 21 Nov 2014 07:57

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