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National AIDS Control Programme:HIV/AIDS/Sexuall Transimitted Disease (STD) Surveillance Report No. 14, December 1999

National AIDS Controlo Program, (N.) (2000) National AIDS Control Programme:HIV/AIDS/Sexuall Transimitted Disease (STD) Surveillance Report No. 14, December 1999. UNSPECIFIED. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

This report provides an account of HIVI AIDSISTDs in Mainland Tanzania for the period January to December
1999.

A total of 8,850 AIDS cases were reported to the NACP from the 20 regions in 1999, bringing the cumulative number of AIDS cases from 1983 to 118,713. Simulation model estimates that only 1 out of 5 AIDS cases are reported. NACP therefore estimates that 44,250 cases occurred in 1999 and 600,000 cumulative AIDS cases have occurred from 1983 to 1999.

Both males and females were equally affected but the peak number of AIDS cases in women was at the age 25-
29 years compared with 30-34 years in men. However, the sex-specific case rate for 1999 was higher for males compared to females. Generally, the data indicate that females acquire HIV infection at an earlier age compared to males, assuming a similar incubation period for both sexes. The main mode of transmission remains heterosexual, accounting for 82.7% of all cases.

Antenatal clinic sentinel surveillance data were available from 17 sites. HIV prevalence in this sentinel population varied by site ranging from 7.0% in Bukoba urban to 29.5% in Kyela district. Most sites showed a stable prevalence from 1992-1999 except Kyela, Moshi rural and Morogoro urban, which had an increasing trend. Of interest is the observed decreasing trend for Bukoba urban over the same time period. Syphilis prevalence among antenatal clinic attendees in 1999 ranged from 0.4% to 32.6%.

During 1999, 119,114 persons (82.3% males, 17.7% females and 4.4% donors of unspecified sex) donated blood. Of these, majorities (99%) were relatives of patients, 0.9% were institutional donors and 0.1% were paid donors. The overall HIV seroprevalence among blood donors was 9.4%. Applying sex specific prevalence of HIV among blood donors to adult population aged 15 years and above, it is estimated that 1,745,320 persons are infected with the AIDS virus. A statistically significant difference in HIV seroprevalence was observed between relative donors (9.4%; 11,023/117,400) and institutional donors (13.3%; 138/1,041). The age and sex­ specific prevalence in the blood donor population showed higher prevalence among females than males in the same age groups. An increasing trend in age-specific HIV prevalence was observed for both sexes in blood donor population from 1991 - 1999

Except in Mbeya region where both Genital Ulcer Disease (GUD) and Genital Discharge Syndrome (GDS)
• (20318 and 21002 new episodes respectively) were the commonest STDs, GDS (29,387 new episodes) was the most common STD syndrome in other regions.

The impact of HIV on other diseases was particularly noted for tuberculosis, whereby HIV has led to a significant resurgence of TB, with atypical presentation and tendency to emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Fungal infections especially candidiasis and cryptococcosis occur frequently among HIV infected people in Tanzania.

Voluntary counselling and HIV testing (VCT) services continued in 85 districts, but data were available from only 22 of these districts. A large proportion (75.8%; 1978/2608) of those tested in VCT were seropositive, implyjng that possibly most of those who go for such services do so because of high suspicion of being potentially infected.

Studies conducted in Tanzania in recent years have reported findings of interest. Included are high HIV prevalence among children admitted in Muhimbili Medical Centre, high HIV incidence in an urban cohort in Dares Salaam and the efficacy of short regimen of combined antiretroviral therapy in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. The prevalent HIV subtypes circulating in Tanzania were found to be subtypes A, C, D and recombinant strains. The suitability of age-adjusted HIV prevalence among antenatal clinic attendees in estimating prevalence in the general population was also ascertained.

Item Type: Other
Subjects: HIV > Surveillance
Divisions: Other
Depositing User: Mr Joseph Madata
Date Deposited: 29 Aug 2012 08:32
Last Modified: 29 Aug 2012 08:32
URI: http://ihi.eprints.org/id/eprint/337

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