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Associations Between Gestational Anthropometry, Maternal HIV, and Fetal and Early Infancy Growth in a Prospective Rural/semi-rural Tanzanian Cohort, 2012-13.

Wilkinson, A. L., Pedersen, S. H., Urassa, M., Michael, D., Todd, J., Kinung'hi, S., Changalucha, J. and McDermid, J. M. (2015) Associations Between Gestational Anthropometry, Maternal HIV, and Fetal and Early Infancy Growth in a Prospective Rural/semi-rural Tanzanian Cohort, 2012-13. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 15. p. 277. ISSN 1471-2393

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Healthcare access and resources differ considerably between urban and rural settings making cross-setting generalizations difficult. In resource-restricted rural/semi-rural environments, identification of feasible screening tools is a priority. The objective of this study was to evaluate gestational anthropometry in relation to birth and infant growth in a rural/semi-rural Tanzanian prospective cohort of mothers and their infants. Mothers (n = 114: 44 HIV-positive) attending antenatal clinic visits were recruited in their second or third trimester between March and November, 2012, and followed with their infants through 6-months post-partum. Demographic, clinical, and infant feeding data were obtained using questionnaires administered by a Swahili-speaking research nurse on demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and infant feeding practices. Second or third trimester anthropometry (mid-upper arm circumference [MUAC], triceps skinfold thickness, weight, height), pregnancy outcomes, birth (weight, length, head circumference) and infant anthropometry (weight-for-age z-score [WAZ], length-for-age z-score [LAZ]) were obtained. Linear regression and mixed effect modeling were used to evaluate gestational factors in relation to pregnancy and infant outcomes. Gestational MUAC and maternal HIV status (HIV-positive mothers = 39 %) were associated with infant WAZ and LAZ from birth to 6-months in multivariate models, even after adjustment for infant feeding practices. The lowest gestational MUAC tertile was associated with lower WAZ throughout early infancy, as well as lower LAZ at 3 and 6-months. In linear mixed effects models through 6-months, each 1 cm increase in gestational MUAC was associated with a 0.11 increase in both WAZ (P < 0.001) and LAZ (P = 0.001). Infant HIV-exposure was negatively associated with WAZ (β = -0.65, P < 0.001) and LAZ (β = -0.49, P < 0.012) from birth to 6-months. Lower gestational MUAC, evaluated using only a tape measure and minimal training that is feasible in non-urban clinic and community settings, was associated with lower infant anthropometric measurements. In this rural and semi-rural setting, HIV-exposure was associated with poorer anthropometry through 6-months despite maternal antiretroviral access. Routine assessment of MUAC has the potential to identify at-risk women in need of additional health interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and infant growth. Further research is needed to establish gestational MUAC reference ranges and to define interventions that successfully improve MUAC during pregnancy.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Gestational anthropometry, Maternal HIV, Fetal and Early Infancy Growth, Tanzanian
Subjects: Maternal & Neonatal Health > Maternal Mortality & Morbidity
Maternal & Neonatal Health > Neonatal Health
Divisions: National Institute for Medical Research
Depositing User: Mr Joseph Madata
Date Deposited: 07 Jan 2016 07:06
Last Modified: 07 Jan 2016 07:06

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