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Prevalence of Lymphatic Filariasis and Treatment Effectiveness of Albendazole/ Ivermectin in Individuals with HIV Co-infection in Southwest-Tanzania.

Kroidl, I., Saathof, E., Maganga, L., Clowes, P., Maboko, L., Hoerauf, A., Makunde, W. H., Haule, A., Mviombo, P., Pitter, B., Mgeni, N., Mabuye, J., Kowuor, D., Mwingira, U., Malecela, M. N., Löscher, T. and Hoelscher, M. (2016) Prevalence of Lymphatic Filariasis and Treatment Effectiveness of Albendazole/ Ivermectin in Individuals with HIV Co-infection in Southwest-Tanzania. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 10 (4). e0004618. ISSN 1935-2735

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Abstract

Annual mass treatment with ivermectin and albendazole is used to treat lymphatic filariasis in many African countries, including Tanzania. In areas where both diseases occur, it is unclear whether HIV co-infection reduces treatment success. In a general population study in Southwest Tanzania, individuals were tested for HIV and circulating filarial antigen, an indicator of Wuchereria bancrofti adult worm burden, before the first and after 2 consecutive rounds of anti-filarial mass drug administration. Testing of 2104 individuals aged 0-94 years before anti-filarial treatment revealed a prevalence of 24.8% for lymphatic filariasis and an HIV-prevalence of 8.9%. Lymphatic filariasis was rare in children, but prevalence increased in individuals above 10 years, whereas a strong increase in HIV was only seen above 18 years of age. The prevalence of lymphatic filariasis in adults above 18 years was 42.6% and 41.7% (p = 0.834) in HIV-negatives and-positives, respectively. Similarly, the HIV prevalence in the lymphatic filariasis infected (16.6%) and uninfected adult population (17.1%) was nearly the same. Of the above 2104 individuals 798 were re-tested after 2 rounds of antifilarial treatment. A significant reduction in the prevalence of circulating filarial antigen from 21.6% to 19.7% was found after treatment (relative drop of 8.8%, McNemar´s exact p = 0.036). Furthermore, the post-treatment reduction of CFA positivity was (non-significantly) larger in HIV-positives than in HIV-negatives (univariable linear regression p = 0.154). In an area with a high prevalence for both diseases, no difference was found between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals regarding the initial prevalence of lymphatic filariasis. A moderate but significant reduction in lymphatic filariasis prevalence and worm burden was demonstrated after two rounds of treatment with albendazole and ivermectin. Treatment effects were more pronounced in the HIV co-infected subgroup, indicating that the effectiveness of antifilarial treatment was not reduced by concomitant HIV-infection. Studies with longer follow-up time could validate the observed differences in treatment effectiveness.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Lymphatic Filariasis, Albendazole/Ivermectin, HIV- Coinfection, Treatment, Southwest-Tanzania
Subjects: HIV > Treatment
Divisions: National Institute for Medical Research
Depositing User: Mr Joseph Madata
Date Deposited: 05 May 2016 08:30
Last Modified: 05 May 2016 08:30
URI: http://ihi.eprints.org/id/eprint/3742

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