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Multi-Country Evaluation of Safety of Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine Post-Licensure in African Public Hospitals with Electrocardiograms.

Kabanywanyi, A. M., Baiden, R., Ali, A. M., Mahende, M. K., Ogutu, B. R., Oduro, A., Tinto, H., Gyapong, M., Sie, A., Sevene, E., Macete, E., Owusu-Agyei, S., Adjei, A., Compaoré, G., Valea, I., Osei, I., Yawson, A., Adjuik, M., Akparibo, R., Kakolwa, M. A., Abdulla, S. and Binka, F. (2016) Multi-Country Evaluation of Safety of Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine Post-Licensure in African Public Hospitals with Electrocardiograms. PloS one, 11 (10). e0164851. ISSN 1932-6203

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Abstract

The antimalarial drug piperaquine is associated with delayed ventricular depolarization, causing prolonged QT interval (time taken for ventricular de-polarisation and re-polarisation). There is a lack of safety data regarding dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine (DHA/PPQ) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, which has limited its use. We created a platform where electrocardiograms (ECG) were performed in public hospitals for the safety assessment of DHA/PPQ, at baseline before the use of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine (Eurartesim®), and on day 3 (before and after administration of the final dose) and day 7 post-administration. Laboratory analyses included haematology and clinical chemistry. The main objective of the ECG assessment in this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of DHA/PPQ on QTc intervals and the association of QTc intervals with changes in blood biochemistry, full and differential blood count over time after the DHA/PPQ administration. A total of 1315 patients gave consent and were enrolled of which 1147 (87%) had complete information for analyses. Of the enrolled patients 488 (42%), 323 (28%), 213 (19%) and 123 (11%) were from Ghana, Burkina Faso, Tanzania and Mozambique, respectively. Median (lower-upper quartile) age was 8 (5-14) years and a quarter of the patients were children under five years of age (n = 287). Changes in blood biochemistry, full and differential blood count were temporal which remained within clinical thresholds and did not require any intervention. The mean QTcF values were significantly higher than on day 1 when measured on day 3 before and after administration of the treatment as well as on day 7, four days after completion of treatment (12, 22 and 4 higher, p < 0.001). In all age groups the values of QT, QTcF and QTcB were highest on day 3 after drug intake. The mean extreme QTcF prolongation from baseline was lowest on day 3 before drug intake (33 ms, SD = 19) and highest on day 3 after the last dose (60 ms, SD = 31). There were 79 (7%) events of extreme mean QTcF prolongation which were not clinically significant. Nearly a half of them (n = 37) were grade 3 and mainly among males (33/37). Patients in Burkina Faso, Mozambique and Tanzania had significantly lower mean QTcF than patients in Ghana by an average of 3, 4 and 11 ms, respectively. We found no evidence that Eurartesim® administered in therapeutic doses in patients with uncomplicated malaria and no predisposing cardiac conditions in Africa was associated with adverse clinically significant QTc prolongation.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine, Malaria, African Public Hospitals, Electrocardiograms
Subjects: Health Systems > Surveillance, monitoring & evaluation
Divisions: Ifakara Health Institute > Interventions
Depositing User: Mr Joseph Madata
Date Deposited: 11 Jan 2017 08:57
Last Modified: 11 Jan 2017 08:57
URI: http://ihi.eprints.org/id/eprint/3999

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