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Ivermectin-treated Cattle Reduces Blood Digestion, Egg Production and Survival of a Free-living Population of Anopheles arabiensis under Semi-field Condition in South-Eastern Tanzania.

Lyimo, I. N., Kessy, S. T., Mbina, K. F., Daraja, A. A. and Mnyone, L. L. (2017) Ivermectin-treated Cattle Reduces Blood Digestion, Egg Production and Survival of a Free-living Population of Anopheles arabiensis under Semi-field Condition in South-Eastern Tanzania. Malaria journal, 16 (1). p. 239. ISSN 1475-2875

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Abstract

Anopheles arabiensis feed on cattle and contributes to residual transmission of malaria in areas with high coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying in East Africa. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ivermectin-treated cattle as a complementary vector control tool against population of An. arabiensis under the semi-field conditions in south-eastern Tanzania. The free-living population of An. arabiensis was allowed to forage on untreated or ivermectin-treated cattle in alternating nights within the semi-field system in south-eastern Tanzania. Fresh blood fed mosquitoes were collected in the morning using mouth aspirators and assessed for their blood meal digestion, egg production, and survivorship. The residual activity of ivermectin-treated cattle was also determined by exposing mosquitoes to the same treatments after every 2 days until day 21 post-treatments. These experiments were replicated 3 times using different individual cattle. Overall, the ivermectin-treated cattle reduced blood meal digestion in the stomach of An. arabiensis, and their subsequent egg production and survival over time. The ivermectin-treated cattle halved blood meal digestion in mosquitoes, but reduced their egg production for up to 15 days. The ivermectin-treated cattle reduced the survival, and median survival times (1-3 days) of An. arabiensis than control cattle. The daily mortality rates of mosquitoes fed on ivermectin-treated cattle increased by five-fold relative to controls in the first week, and it gradually declined up to 21 days after treatment. This study demonstrates that long-lasting effects of ivermectin-treated cattle on egg production and survival of An. arabiensis may sustainably suppress their vector density, and reduce residual transmission of malaria. This study suggests that ivermectin-treated non-lactating cattle (i.e. calves, heifers and bulls) could be suitable option for large-scale malaria vector control without limiting consumption of milk and meat by communities in rural settings. Furthermore, simulation models are underway to predict the impact of ivermectin-treated cattle alone, or in combination with LLIN/IRS, the frequency of treatment, and their coverage required to significantly suppress population of An. arabiensis and reduce residual transmission of malaria.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Anopheles arabiensis, Blood-digestion, Cattle, Egg-production, Exophagy, Haematin, Ivermectin, Residual-transmission, Survival, Vector–control, Zoophagy
Subjects: Malaria > Vector control
Divisions: Ifakara Health Institute > Environmental
Depositing User: Mr Joseph Madata
Date Deposited: 13 Jan 2018 13:51
Last Modified: 13 Jan 2018 13:51
URI: http://ihi.eprints.org/id/eprint/4300

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