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Tanzania HIV/AIDS, Work and Development

Beckmann, S. and Rai, P. (2004) Tanzania HIV/AIDS, Work and Development. HIV/AIDS+WORK Country Profile 2 . International Labour Offi ce, Geneva, Switzerland, Switzerland. ISBN 92-2-115849-7

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Abstract

This paper was prepared as part of a series addressing the context of HIV/AIDS, work and development at the country level. It examines the demographic and socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. The paper describes the effects of HIV/AIDS on labour supply and on the demand in key skills and occupations. It identifies current and potential shortages inhuman resource capacity that will significantly affect economic development and growth in Tanzania. It also develops policy implications and provides recommendations for a coherent intervention by the ILO, in cooperation with its tripartite partners. Section A looks at the recent economic and labour market situation and analyses the current epidemiological trends. It provides estimates of the epidemic and its impact on Demographics and the labour market. HIV in Tanzania spread rapidly since the first cases of AIDS were reported in 1983. According to the most recent available sentinel surveillance data, HIV prevalence among women seeking antenatal care is frequently over 10% and, in one rural site, was found to be 32.5%. Studies from blood donors and population-based studies confirm these data. Tanzania today faces a generalized epidemic with one of the highest national prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS in the world. Among the socio-cultural and behavioral factors contributing to the spread of HIV are: sexual intercourse at a very young age; couples marrying later in life, which creates a long gap between first sex and first marriage; a high number and turnover of sexual partners; migration; gender norms; lack of knowledge and widespread taboos; low condom use; and a pool of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)in the population. The epidemic will change the demographic structure on the labour force in Tanzania, causing a reduction in the labour force and a decrease in life expectancy.
Section B describes the macroeconomic and microeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS on the labour force in Tanzania, and its impact on economic variables as well as on human capital accumulation in various sectors. It looks at the impact on some businesses in sectors such as agriculture, health, the public sector, the informal sector and education, where the effects are being seriously felt. Finally, it examines the microeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS on households and the consequences of large number of orphans with inadequate schooling entering the labour force pool. Empirical evidence on the impact of
HIV/AIDS in Tanzania is very difficult to obtain and very few comprehensive studies have been carried out in this area. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has not yet run its full course and, since the disease has a long incubation period between infection and disease, the effects of infection are experienced over a long period of time. As a result, these effects have not been fully studied or evaluated.
Section C identifies key areas of significance for ILO/AIDS and its partners in developing its policy options in Tanzania. It includes the national response to HIV/AIDS by the Government of Tanzania and what specific measures, if any, have been taken to mitigate the effects of the epidemic in the workplace.
This section discusses the newly-administered multi-sectoral AIDS strategy and the Ministry of Health’s initiatives in countering HIV/AIDS. Yet its hows that these initiatives have not sufficiently taken the workplace into account, and that the socio-economic impacts of the epidemic have not been fully considered. HIV/AIDS is still widely considered a health issue, despite national and international efforts to increase awareness about the mult-isectoral dimensions of the epidemic. Section C recommends steps to promote awareness of the socio-

Item Type: Book
Keywords: HIV, AIDS, Tanzania, Demographic, socio-economic
Subjects: HIV > Surveillance
Divisions: Other
Depositing User: Mr Joseph Madata
Date Deposited: 29 Nov 2012 07:49
Last Modified: 29 Nov 2012 09:40
URI: http://ihi.eprints.org/id/eprint/696

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