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Detection and Monitoring of Insecticide Resistance in Malaria Vectors in Tanzania Mainland

Kisinza , W., Kabula, B., Tungu, P., Sindato , C., Mweya, C., Massue , D., Emidi , B., Kitau , J., Chacha , M., Batengana , B., Matowo , J., Msangi , S., Malima , R. and Magesa, S. (2011) Detection and Monitoring of Insecticide Resistance in Malaria Vectors in Tanzania Mainland. Technical Report. UNSPECIFIED. (Unpublished)

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Vector control is a major component of the global strategy for malaria control which aims to prevent parasite transmission mainly through interventions targeting adult Anopheline vectors. Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the cornerstone of malaria vector control programmes. These major interventions in most cases use pyrethroid insecticides which are also used for agricultural purposes. With widespread development of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in malaria vectors raises concern over the sustainability of insecticide-based interventions for malaria control. Therefore, close monitoring of performance of the insecticides against malaria vectors is essential for early detection and
management of resistance. To measure pyrethroid susceptibility in populations of malaria vectors in Tanzania and to test the efficacy of LLINs/ITNs and insecticide residues on sprayed wall substrates in the IRS operation areas. In 2011 the National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR) in collaboration with National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) conducted large scale surveillance to determine the countrywide susceptibility levels of malaria vectors to insecticides used for both public health and agricultural purposes. Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l. were collected during national surveys and samples of LLINs/ITNs in the 14 sentinel sites and houses from the IRS areas were randomly selected for bioassays to test the efficacy and insecticide residual effects on sprayed wall substrates respectively. Wild adult mosquitoes for susceptibility testing were collected by resting catches indoors. Net traps (outdoors and indoors) were set up to enhance catches. WHO Susceptibility kits were used to test for resistance status using test papers: Lambdacyhalothrin 0.05%, Deltamethrin 0.05%, Permethrin 0.75%, DDT 4%, Propoxur 0.1% and Fenitrothion 1%. The quality of the test paper was checked against a laboratory susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu strain. Knockdown effect and mortality were measured in standard WHO susceptibility tests and cone bio-efficacy tests. Whereas, con bioassays on treated walls and ITNs were conducted using the laboratory susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu strain. The results from the surveillance recorded continued susceptibility of malaria vectors to commonly used insecticides. However, there were some isolated cases of resistance and/or reduced susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides which may not compromise the current vector control interventions in the country. Anopheles gambiae s.l. showed resistance (15-28%) to each of the pyrethroids and to DDT but not to Organophosphates (Propoxur 0.1%), and Carbamates (Fenitrothion 1%). The information obtained from this surveillance is expected to be used to guide the National Malaria Control Programme on the rational selection of insecticides for malaria vector control and for the national mitigation plans for management and containment of malaria vector resistance in the country. The current observation warrants more vigilant monitoring of the susceptibility of malaria mosquitoes to commonly used insecticides in areas found with resistance and/or reduced levels of susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticides, particularly in areas with heavy agricultural and/or public health use of insecticides where resistance is likely to develop. The current survey covered malaria vectors only and not the non malaria vectors (nuisance) mosquitoes such as Culex. Similar monitoring of insecticide susceptibility of this non malaria vectors may be needed to ensure public motivation for sustained use of ITNs/LLINs in the country. The surveillance leading to these results received funding from PMI/USAID through RTI International with Sub Agreement Number 33300212555.

Item Type: Report (Technical Report)
Keywords: Malaria Control;Vector Control;Insecticide Treated Nets(ITN);Indoor Residual Spraying(IRS);Anopheles Gambiae;Malaria Mosquitoes;Plasmodium Falciparum;Tanzania
Subjects: Malaria > Vector control
Divisions: National Institute for Medical Research
Depositing User: Mr Joseph Madata
Date Deposited: 06 Dec 2012 06:35
Last Modified: 06 Dec 2012 06:35

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